Outline for 8th-9th Grade Physical Science Course – PHS 534

and alignment with Arizona Science Standard (strand=S, concept=C, P.O.#)  (Feb 2006)

Link to AZ State Science Standard:  http://www.ade.az.gov/standards/science/articulated.asp

 

Phenomena/Investigations/Activities

Grade 8 AZ Science Standard

High School AZ Science Standard

Unit 1. Geometric properties of matter

1.1 Fundamentals of measurement

Measuring the measuring tool

standard vs non-standard measures, unit conversions

Accuracy of measuring
uncertainty, estimation, sig figs
Meter stick measurements
practice measuring lengths, SI units

1.2 Comparing lengths graphically

Wingspan

height vs. wingspan, slope of graph represents ratio

Circumference vs. diameter

slope of graph yields p, percent error in experimental value

1.3 Time rate of change in position – velocity

BPV lab

Measure changes in position as a function of time

Slope of  x vs t graph à velocity

Optional: Sim-Calc* Package 3

Technology tool to examine physical meaning of slope and intercept. A) Position graphs: slope as velocity.

B) Making meanings for linear functions & equations.

 

1.4 Measurement of Area

Areas of regular objects

define area as # of squares on graph paper, draw various rectangles with same area

Areas of circles
concept of lower and upper bounds for estimates, intro , see how calculated value fits estimate
 

Practical applications of area,

Unit conversions (carpet, tile, yard, etc.)
Pizza activity.
Construct pizzas of diameters d and 2d

 

1.5 Measurement of Volume

Defining volume
define volume as number of unit cubes that fill the space.

Volumes of irregular solids
determination of volume by displacement of water
Graphical relationship between volume and height
relationship between graphical representation and shape of object.

 

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Unit 2. Physical properties of matter

 

2.1 How much stuff? (comparing mass)
Measurement of mass

standard unit of mass, unit conversions, use of balance – scientific notation

Conservation of mass
IPS suite of labs (from ch. 2)

Dissolving of salt

Ice melting

Formation of a solid

Formation of a gas

 

2.2 Density as characteristic property
Density of solids
measure mass & volume of different samples of same material,

Density of liquids
measure density of water and other liquids – formation of layers, hydrometer (salt water vs. fresh, water vs. alcohol or oil)

 

Density of a gas

Is doable and provides experimental evidence for modifying model of matter

 

 

 

Unit 3. Atomic model of matter

3.1 Intro atomic model-solids, liquids & gases

Thickness of a thin layer

Use tools we have thus far (V=M/D, h = V/A) to get an estimate of upper limit for size of atoms

 

 

 

3.2 Energy and the states of matter

Demo - thermal expansion of liquids

Similar to older IPS (ed #?) lab

Why is this discontinued from current edition?

 

Phase changes

Melting point –

Icy Hot or Lauric acid (see IPS)

 

 

Boiling point

 

Include some treatment of evaporation of liquids and condensation of vapor. 

 

 

 

 

 

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Unit 4. Interactions–what holds matter together? How do we explain motion?

 

4.1. Defining the force concept:

Force as interaction between agent & object.
All forces come in pairs (Newton's 3rd law).
Tools to represent forces – vectors, system ID.

4.2. Balanced vs unbalanced forces.

Equilibrium exists when forces on the system are balanced.

Net force is zero means system is at rest and remains at rest or continues moving with constant velocity.

Net force not zero: acceleration occurs.

 

4.3. Newton's second law.

Acceleration is proportional to the net force.

Acceleration is inversely proportional to the mass.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Unit 5. Kinds of matter – separation and change

5.1 Separation of mixtures

Separation of a mixture of liquids (alcohol and water)

Use of different bp's to do fractional distillation (Similar to IPS 5.1)

 

Separation of a mixture of solids (sand, salt and iron filings)

Use magnet to pull out iron, dissolve the salt, filter the sand, and recover salt by evaporating filtrate.(similar to IPS 5.4)

 

5.2 Separation of Compounds

Electrolysis of water

Separate water into hydrogen and oxygen  (like IPS 6.2)

 

5.3 Synthesis of Compounds

Formation of water

Spark mixture of hydrogen and oxygen gases from previous experiment

Synthesis of zinc chloride

Combine varying amounts of Zn with fixed amount of HCl.  Compare mass of ZnCl2 to mass of Zn at start

 

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