**Syllabus: Modeling
Instruction in Mechanical Waves & Sound **

June 11-29, 2018 at Arizona State University

** **

**ASU catalog description:**
PHS 594/PHY 494: Modeling Instruction in Mechanical Waves (3 credits). Teaching mechanical waves and sound in high school physics
using model-based methods and science practices. Prerequisite: PHS
530/PHY480.

Credit is allowed for only PHY 494 or PHS 594.

Peer leader: Michael Crofton

Course hours: 8:00 – 3:30 M-Th, 8:00-12:00 F

email: croftmd@comcast.net

** **

__COURSE DESCRIPTION:__

**A. Objectives.**

The
main objective of the 1st summer Modeling Workshop (in mechanics) was to
acquaint teachers with all aspects of the modeling method and develop some
skill in implementing it. To that end, teachers were provided with a fairly
complete set of written curriculum materials to support instruction organized
into coherent modeling cycles (as described in Wells et al., *A Modeling
Method for High School Physics*, 1995). The
physical materials and experiments in the curriculum are simple and quite
standard, already available in any reasonably equipped physics classroom.

In
this course, teachers will review core modeling principles, discuss ways to
successfully implement a modeling approach, then work through coherent
model-centered materials in __mechanical waves and sound__, to develop a
deep understanding of content and how to teach it effectively. In this
workshop there is less emphasis on why we believe that modeling is superior to
conventional instruction, since we assume that teachers coming back to take a
follow-up course have come to accept this as true. To these ends, they read,
discuss, and reflect on related physics education research articles. **The
focus is on first-year physics courses that use algebra and trigonometry. **

**B. Rationale and course plan: **To develop familiarity with materials necessary to
fully implement them in the classroom, we find that teachers must work through
the activities, discussions and worksheets, alternating between student and
teacher modes, much as they did in the 1^{st} Modeling Workshop in
Mechanics. Each of the four units in the course manual includes an extensive
Teacher Notes section. Throughout the course, teachers are asked to reflect on
their practice and how they might apply the techniques they have learned in the
course to their own classes.

In the past it has been common to have a class with many experienced modeling teachers mixed with many teachers that just finished their first year of using the Modeling Method. On the first day we have generally had the experienced teachers meet together in groups, and the ÒnewbiesÓ meet in other groups. The experienced teachers come up with advice for the newbies and the newbies come up with items they wish to discuss. Some of the topics that past debriefing sessions have covered are whiteboarding (grading), pace/coverage, successes/what to avoid, grading labs, and teaching with non-modelers. Instead of spending two hours on the first day of class with these discussions we will have a board where anyone who wishes can put up a topic or question and we will discuss it when convenient.

Unit 1: **The Oscillating Particle**. In this unit we develop the model of an oscillating
particle, its causal force model, the restoring force, along with its
kinematical model, simple harmonic motion. We will develop graphical and
mathematical representations by experimentally studying the motion of masses
oscillating vertically on springs. Energy considerations are also studied.

Unit
2: **Mechanical Waves in 1-Dimension**.
We connect a string of particles together with springs to help develop the
model of a wave being a disturbance propagated through the connected particles
as they oscillate. We move on to study the behavior of transverse and
longitudinal pulses as they move and reflect. After establishing pulse
behavior we use standing waves on a string to experimentally develop the wave
velocity equation relating frequency and wavelength. We finish by
experimentally developing the relationship of the velocity of waves on a string
and the linear density of the string along with the relationship of the
velocity and the tension in the string.

Unit
3:** Sound**. The model of sound being
a pressure wave caused by longitudinally oscillating particles is developed.
We study the concept of resonance and factors necessary for it in tubes, on
strings and on rods. We use MBL microphones to study beats, harmonics, pitch
and loudness. We finish the unit with the Doppler effect.

Unit
4: **Mechanical Waves in 2-Dimensions**.
We study reflection, refraction, diffraction and two-slit interference. This
unit makes use of ripple tanks to develop two dimensional behaviors. To be
honest, the oscillating particle model is not taught as a factor in these
behaviors. Due to the difficulty of studying these behaviors fully using
coupled particles, we will use light.

In each unit we will use Java applets, practicums, MBL probes, many demonstrations and deployment activities.

__ASSIGNMENTS, GRADING POLICIES AND PERCENTAGES:__

**A. Attendance**: You
are expected to attend all days of this course. If you miss 2 classes (12
contact hours), your maximum grade will be a B; if 3, you can earn no higher
than a C. Please be on time and ready to go! Report any expected absences to
the course instructor as soon as possible. ASU credit-seeking students who
miss course time are to complete and write a reflection for all activities
missed, design an activity modified or developed for pilot use in the classroom
this coming year, and present results to the course instructor and peers when
appropriate.

**B. Assignments and grading policy:**

Students will contract for a letter grade on the second
class day. **Contracting for a letter grade is not a guaranteed grade. Work
must be completed at ASU standards and meet all class requirements.** All
participants, whether seeking ASU credit or not, are expected to do activities
and homework, as described below for a ÒCÓ grade. (Non-credit participants
should email the instructor, specifying which days they intend to participate,
at the start of the course.)

To earn a letter grade of ÒCÓ, you are expected to do the following:

á Keep a course notebook in which all labs, activities and demonstrations are placed. Teachers find this notebook to be a valuable resource as they use the curricular materials in their own classes. (50%)

¤ You will perform labs in Òstudent modeÓ. All labs should include the prelab, the purpose, your data, all graphs (with curve fits if not linear), equations of linearized graphs, manipulations of units, statement of the relationship and the general equation for the lab. For each lab add the necessary comments that will help you guide your students through successful lab experiences.

¤ You should also take notes on demonstrations and the concept they are designed to illustrate.

¤ Any activities such as practicums that we do should have the question to be solved along with the data and calculations needed to solve it.

¤ Basically, the expectation is that notes on everything we do will be in your notebook.

á Formally write up one of the four paradigm labs at 80% level or higher. (90% minimum for an A) (10%)

á Work out all designated problems and questions on the worksheets and insert them into your 3-ring binder. (10%)

á Participate actively and thoughtfully in whiteboarding sessions, the discussion of readings, activities, and the worksheets. (10%)

á
From time to time, you will be given a reading on a current topic
or articles from physics education research. For each of these, write a one
half to one-page typed *reaction* (not a
synopsis) in which you offer your views about ideas discussed in the reading
assignment. (5%)

á At the end of each unit we would like you to read the teacherÕs notes. Then turn in a one page reflection on the storyline and the activities in the unit. The materials have recently undergone extensive revisions and we are looking for comments that will help make them better. (15%)

To
be considered for a ÒBÓ, teachers in PHS 594 do all of the above plus two more
assignments. One is a two-page (minimum) typed reflection paper describing one
of the following; how Modeling Instruction in __mechanical waves and sound__
differs from your current practice and what changes you plan to incorporate, or
the issues with which you will have to deal in order to implement materials and
strategies from the course in your classroom. In addition a second paradigm
lab must be written formally with a grade of 80% or better. (Due on the 3^{rd}-to-last
class day.)

To be considered for an ÒAÓ, you will be required to complete two additional assignments. One choice is a set of assorted problems with more rigor than the typical modeling type problems. Another is to write up one or two of the paradigm labs you have not written up. They must have a grade of 90% or better. (Due on the next-to-last class day.)

__ __

**C. Grading scale: 97-100
A+ 93-96.9 A 90-92.9 A-**

** 87-89.9
B+ 83-86.9 B 80-82.9 B-**

** 77-79.9
C+ 73-76.9 C 70-72.9 C-**

**D. Arizona Board of Regents and ASU policies:**

Each student is expected to spend a minimum of 45 hours per semester hour of credit.

Pass-fail is not an option for graduate courses. https://students.asu.edu/grades-grading-policies

ÒBÓ grade means average; 3.0 GPA is minimum requirement for MNS & other graduate degrees.

Incomplete: only for special circumstances. Must finish course within 1 year, or it becomes ÒEÓ.

An instructor may drop a student for non-attendance during the first two class days (in summer).

An instructor may withdraw a student with a mark of "W" or a grade of "E" only in cases of disruptive classroom behavior."

** **

**E. Academic dishonesty policy:** Please refer to http://provost.asu.edu/academicintegrity.
Students who suspect a policy violation are encouraged to discuss their
concerns with their course instructor. ASU has a grade of "XE" which
can become part of a transcript and permanent academic records and explicitly
means that the student failed a course because of academic dishonesty.

**F. Disability policy**:
Qualified students with disabilities who require disability accommodations in
this course are encouraged to make their requests to the instructor on the
first class day or before. Note: Prior to receiving disability accommodations,
verification of eligibility from the Disability Resource Center (DRC) is
required. Disability information is confidential.

**REQUIRED INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS:**

No textbook. 3-ring binder (preferably 1.5 inches thick); 6 tab inserts. You will also need a 9Ó x 12Ó quad-ruled lab notebook. This size will allow you to easily tape or paste in data you collect and graphs you produce from the labs you perform during the workshop, as well as your reflections on activities and readings assigned. (Free for AZ teachers. Buy at Staples for ~$15).

__REQUIRED READING:__

Michael Wittmann, ÒThe Object
Coordination Class Applied to Wavepulses: Analyzing Student Reasoning in Wave
PhysicsÓ, *International Journal of Science Education *24:1, 97-118 (2002)

Michael C. Wittmann, Richard N. Steinberg, Edward F. Redish, ÒUnderstanding and Affecting Student Reasoning About Sound WavesÓ

__RECOMMENDED READING____ __

Fernand Brunschwig, ÒTeaching Physics: Inquiry and the Ray Model of Light

Bruce Sherwood,
ÒAnswer to Question #21Ó, *American Journal of Physics *64, 840-842 (1996)